Helicobacter Pylori (HP) is a bacterium that can cause peptic ulcer and gastritis, HP infection is very common, the rate of infection in Chinese population is about 50-60%, and most infected people have no symptoms. HP infection is the main cause of peptic ulcer and gastritis, and long-term HP infection is also an import- ant risk factor for gastric cancer.
If you develop an Helicobacter Pylori (HP) infection, it means an increased risk of stomach cancer. If you have a family history of stom- ach cancer or other tumor risk factors, your doctor will recommend an HP test even if you don't have any symptoms. In addition to HP testing and treatment, doctors may also recommend lifestyle adjustments such as eating more fruits, vegetables, and fiber, and regular check-ups and following doctor's advice will reduce tumor risk.
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Helicobacter pylori is mainly transmitted through oral-to-human transmission, such as kissing, or through contact with vomit or feces, such as not washing hands after defecation.
• Eating in an unclean environment or cooking environment that is not clean
• Water quality or food contamination
Most HP infections occur in childhood, and most people have no symptoms after infection. Infections tend to occur in places of poor hygiene.
Most people who are infected with HP do not cause any discomfort, and only 20% of people develop symptoms, which are also due to gastritis or peptic ulcers:
1.Dull or burning pain in the epigastric region (mostly hours or at night after a meal) that usually lasts for minutes or even hours, for days or weeks
2. Abdominal distension
3. Nausea, vomiting
6. Poor appetite
7. Black stools
The most common tests include:
Blowing a bag before and after drinking a special liquid to detect the carbon dioxide content of the exhaled breath in the bag, the increase of carbon dioxide after drinking the liquid indicates the presence of HP infection.
Blood HP antibody test
Blood testing for HP antibod- ies only indicates that HP has been previously infect- ed, but it is not clear whether there is an active infec- tion.
Endoscopy: endoscopic biopsy, rapid urease test, or pathological testing confirm the presence of HP infection
HP treatment usually consists of 2 antibiotics, proton-pump inhibitors that inhibit stomach acid
Usually antibiotics include amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline
Proton pump inhibitors
Usually one of omeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole
Protects the gastric mucosa, has a certain bacteriostatic effect, improves the effect of HP treatment.
In the absence of large-scale community screening and eradication treatment, the rate of RE-infection after HP eradication is roughly 4-7%. Therefore, the rate of reinfection after HP eradication treatment is very low.
The following measures can reduce the risk of HP infection:
• Drink clean water and wash food with clean water
• Wash your hands before meals and after going to the bathroom
• Pay attention to dining hygiene: such as individual serving and using public chopsticks