Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased.
The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms for osteoporosis until the first fracture occurs. However, if you experience back pain and stooped posture, these may be signs for osteoporosis.
Risk factors include:
- Female gender
- Family history of osteoporosis
- Previous fracture
- Menopause/ oophorectomy
- Long term glucocorticoid therapy
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Primary/secondary hypogonadism in men
- Low body mass index
- Poor nutrition
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Eating disorders
- Insufficient exercise
Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) provides a widely utilisable method for calculating bone mineral density (BMD). The World Health Organisation (WHO) produced an operational definition of osteoporosis based on a BMD T score of −2.5 or lower. This score is the diagnostic criterion for osteoporosis and those in an osteopenic range (T score between −1.0 and −2.5) are still at risk of fracture.
- Medical Consultation by Doctor
- Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA scan)